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India to ratify amended version of Kyoto Protocol (Relevant for GS Prelims and Mains Paper II and III)

India will soon ratify an amended version of the Kyoto Protocol 
The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave its approval to ratify the deal that is set to expire in 2020 and was shunned by several developed countries, most prominently the United States.

Low chances of deal coming into force
1. Until now, 75 countries have ratified the so-called Doha Amendment of the Kyoto Protocol, which spans from 2012 to 2020, and falls far short of the 144 needed to bring it into force.
2. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005 and obligated the rich and industrialised countries to reduce emissions by 5.2% of 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 period.

However, the refusal of the U.S., the second largest polluter, to be part of the Protocol and lack of commitments by Canada, Japan and major developing countries meant that global emissions actually rose during this period.

Background
Kyoto Protocol which was signed in 1997 to oblige industrialized nations to reduce emission of greenhouse gases to fight global warming has been extended till 2020. The protocol was due to expire at the end of 2012. It was decided in the 8th session of the CoP serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol held in Doha, Qatar to extend the Kyoto Protocol till 2020.

Highlights of the Conference: 
New agreement covers only developed nations whose share of world greenhouse gas emissions is less than 15 %, it excludes countries such as China and India. It was agreed to bring a new pact, in 2015, which will be binding to all countries and will replace Kyoto Protocol. The extension was supported by European Union, Australia, Switzerland and eight other industrialised nations.

US rejected the idea of equity by refusing to associate itself to any new agreement that is under the Convention. Russia also rejected the proposal. India’s principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) were re-introduced in the negotiations after it had been kept out of the talks in 2009 and 2010. It failed to deliver anything of significance for poor countries due to lack of credible pathway to provide then financial aid to deal with climate change.



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